For all? For many? For whom?

I have received quite a few questions about the language change in the translation of the Consecration of the Precious Blood in the Eucharistic prayer from “it will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven” to “it will be poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.”Â  Rather than reinvent the wheel, I include below the answers to six questions that have come from the website of the United States Conference for Catholic Bishops:

1.    What does the decision regarding the translation of pro multis mean?   After having consulted with Conferences of Bishops throughout the world, Pope Benedict XVI determined that the translation of qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in remissinem peccatorum, presently translated “which will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven,” will be changed in the new edition of the Roman Missal to “which will be poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins.” (See circular letter from Francis Cardinal Arinze to Presidents of Conferences of Bishops , dated October 17, 2006 [Prot. no. 467/05/L]).

2.    Why did the Holy Father choose to translate pro multis as “for many” and not as “for all”?  For many is a more accurate translation of the Latin phrase pro multis than the present translation. This is also the wording used in the Biblical narrative account of the Last Supper found in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark:

Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink from it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins (Matthew 26:28).

Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, and they all drank from it. He said to them, This is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed for many (Mark 14:24).

3.    Does this mean that Christ did not die for everyone?   No. It is a dogmatic teaching of the Church that Christ died on the Cross for all men and women (cf. John 11:52; 2 Corinthians 5:14-15; Titus 2:11; 1 John 2:2). The expression “for many,” while remaining open to the inclusion of each human person, is reflective also of the fact that this salvation is not brought about in some mechanistic way, without one’s own desire or participation; rather, the believer is invited to accept in faith the gift that is being offered and to receive the supernatural life that is given to those who participate in this mystery, living it out in their lives as well so as to be numbered among the many to whom the text refers.

4.    What is the significance of “for many” in this context and in the context of the Gospel?  With these words, Jesus identifies his mission to bring salvation through his Passion and Death, his offering of himself for others. In a particular way he identifies himself with the Suffering Servant of the Prophet Isaiah, who suffers to take away the sins of many (Is 53:12).

5.    What will this mean for the celebration of the Sacred Liturgy when the Roman Missal, Third Edition, is introduced?  When the change is first introduced with the Roman Missal in Advent 2011, the shift from for all to for many could be misunderstood as some sort of narrowing of the scope of Jesus salvific action. It will be important to keep in mind the context of the narrative both in the Gospel and in the liturgical action. In the context of the Last Supper, Jesus was speaking to the Twelve, extending the reach of his sacrifice beyond the boundary of his closest disciples. In the context of the celebration of the Eucharist, the phrase for you and for many connects the particular gathered assembly with the larger sense of the Church in every time and place, as if to say not only you gathered here, but many more as well. In this regard, for many has an eschatological meaning beyond some particular limited number.

6.    What is happening to this text in other languages?  The 2006 circular letter was addressed not only to the United States or to the English-speaking world, but to all Conferences of Bishops and all language groups. For example, in Spanish, what had been translated as “por todos” will now be translated as “por muchos.” That change will be implemented when the Spanish translation of the Roman Missal is approved and published for the dioceses of the United States of America.